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Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic power generation

Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic power generation

May 18,2022.

Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that directly converts light energy into electrical energy by utilizing the photovoltaic effect of the semiconductor interface. It is mainly composed of solar panels (components), controllers and inverters, and the main components are composed of electronic components. After the solar cells are connected in series, they can be packaged and protected to form a large-area solar cell module, and then combined with power controllers and other components to form a photovoltaic power generation device.

Compared with new power generation technologies such as wind power, biomass power and nuclear power, photovoltaic power generation is a renewable energy power generation technology with the most ideal characteristics of sustainable development (the most abundant resources and the cleanest power generation process), and has the following main advantages:

1. Solar energy resources are inexhaustible and inexhaustible. The solar energy irradiating the earth is 6,000 times greater than the energy currently consumed by human beings. Moreover, solar energy is widely distributed on the earth. As long as there is light, the photovoltaic power generation system can be used, and it is not limited by factors such as region and altitude.

2. Solar energy resources are available everywhere, and can supply power nearby, without long-distance transmission, avoiding the loss of electric energy caused by long-distance transmission lines.

3. The energy conversion process of photovoltaic power generation is simple. It is a direct conversion from light energy to electrical energy. There is no intermediate process (such as thermal energy conversion into mechanical energy, mechanical energy into electromagnetic energy, etc.) and mechanical movement, and there is no mechanical wear.

4. Photovoltaic power generation has no mechanical transmission parts, and the operation and maintenance are simple, and the operation is stable and reliable. A photovoltaic power generation system can generate electricity as long as it has solar cell components, and with the widespread adoption of automatic control technology, it can basically achieve unattended operation and low maintenance costs.

Of course, solar photovoltaic power generation also has its shortcomings and shortcomings, which can be summed up in the following points:

1. Covers a large area. Due to the low energy density of solar energy, the area of the photovoltaic power generation system will be very large. Every 10kw photovoltaic power generation occupies an area of about 100 square meters, and the average power generation per square meter area is 100w. With the maturity and development of photovoltaic building-integrated power generation technology, more and more photovoltaic power generation systems can utilize the roofs and facades of buildings and structures, which will gradually overcome the shortage of large area of photovoltaic power generation.

2. Strong regional dependence. Different geographical locations and different climates make the sunshine resources in different regions very different. Photovoltaic power generation systems are only effective when applied in areas with abundant solar energy resources.

3. Work intermittently. On the surface of the earth, photovoltaic power generation systems can only generate electricity during the day and cannot generate electricity at night. Unless there is no distinction between day and night in space, solar cells can generate electricity continuously, which is inconsistent with people's electricity needs.

4. Low energy density. Although the total amount of energy thrown by the sun to the earth is extremely huge, due to the large surface area of the earth and the fact that most of the earth's surface is covered by oceans, the solar energy that can really reach the land surface only reaches about 10% of the solar radiation energy of the earth, resulting in a land unit The solar energy that can be directly obtained on the area is less.

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